Training Department

Welcome to the Training Department page. Use the menu on the top of the page to navigate inside the department and discover what to do if you are new, what a controller should know, what a pilot should do and how to request a training or apply for an exam.

Visual Flight Rules (VFR)

As per the definition of the acronym, VFR stands for flights that are conducted without the support of instruments. The pilot must navigate with visual reference to the ground. As visual contact should be guaranteed all the time, there are some certain weather criteria that must be met in order to perform a VFR session.

 

Basic Knowledge Requirements

VFR represents the easiest way of flying an aircraft. However, as per a normal car driving licence, there is a required minimum knowledge in order to be allowed to lift the gear off the runway.

  • Basic of air law
  • Chart reading & VFR procedures
  • Navigation
  • Meteorology
  • Airspace classes
  • Flight instruments and aircraft knowledge
  • Phraseology
  • Ground movement
  • Take off technique
  • VFR departure
  • VFR arrival
  • Traffic pattern
  • Missed approach & touch and go
  • Full stop landing

A major difference between real life and the virtual sky of IVAO is that in real life a VFR, in some specific conditions, does not have to file a Flight Plan. By contrast on the IVAO network, a Flight Plan is always requested.

 

Weather Constraints

Visibility constraints to VFR is related into which airspace the flight is conducted.

In Switzerland, you will find class C, D, E and G airspaces only. Roughly speaking:

  • the upper airspace (above FL195) is of class C
  • the airspace from FL150 to FL195 is of class D
  • the airspace above the Alps, from 2000 ft AGL to FL150 is of class E
  • the controlled airways (ATS) above FL100 are of class C
  • the Geneva and Zurich TMA's are of class C
  • the TMA's (except Geneva and Zurich) and CTR's are of class D
  • the airspace from the ground surface to 2000 ft AGL (outside TMA/CTR) is of class G

 

 

For the C, D and E airspaces the following rules must be followed:

 

Below FL100

  • 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
  • 1,000ft vertically away from cloud
  • In flight visibility of at least 5km

 

At or above FL100

  • 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
  • 1,000ft vertically away from cloud
  • In flight visibility of at least 8km

 

An aircraft is deemed to have complied with the below FL100 restrictions if the aircraft is not a helicopter and:

  • it flies at or below 3,000ft amsl
  • it flies at a speed which is 140KIAS or less
  • remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and an in flight visibility of at least 5km

 

If it is a helicopter, it is deemed to have complied with the below FL100 restrictions if:

  • it flies at or below 3,000ft amsl
  • it remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and an in flight visibility of at least 1,500 metre

 

In G airspaces when flying a low altitude (i.e. below 3'500 ft ASML or 1'000 ft AGL if this latter is higher):

  • 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
  • vertical separation from clouds with visual contact with the ground

 

If you need more information on different Airspace classes, please refer to the page at this link